Butler believes that gender differences stem from the cultural practice of emulating gender biased acts over a long period of time. Thus, the male may act possessive over the female because that what has been reproduced within his own culture time and time again. This is then a more culturally-based philosophy, with less reliance on the psychology of the isolated individual.
Within the context of social work, both theorists also take individual stances. Chodorow believes that the worker should take a more passive stance to their client, based on Freuds techniques first seen in psychoanalysis. Thus, social workers use empathy to tune into the subconscious of the client, and in a very passive and non-threatening way that the client may not even consciously realize.
With threats minimized in the context of the session, the social worker can then get a better and unbiased understanding of the client. Butler presents the idea that the social worker does not isolate parts of the unconscious alone, but keeps them in perspective with cultural mores that also help to mold the current situation of the client. Thus, the worker takes on a more active role in playing out cultural influences to test the clients reaction and relation to such.